A Cramér-Rao bounds based analysis of 3D antenna array geometries made from ULA branches

Abstract : In the context of passive sources localization using antenna array, the estimation accuracy of elevation, and azimuth are related not only to the kind of estimator which is used, but also to the geometry of the considered antenna array. Although there are several available results on the linear array, and also for planar arrays, other geometries existing in the literature, such as 3D arrays, have been less studied. In this paper, we study the impact of the geometry of a family of 3D models of antenna array on the estimation performance of elevation, and azimuth. The Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB), which is widely spread in signal processing to characterize the estimation performance will be used here as a useful tool to find the optimal configuration. In particular, we give closed-form expressions of CRB for a 3D antenna array under both conditional, and unconditional observation models. Thanks to these explicit expressions, the impact of the third dimension to the estimation performance is analyzed. Particularly, we give criterions to design an isotropic 3D array depending on the considered observation model. Several 3D particular geometry antennas made from uniform linear array (ULA) are analyzed, and compared with 2D antenna arrays. The isotropy condition of such arrays is analyzed. The presented framework can be used for further studies of other types of arrays.
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Dinh Thang Vu, Alexandre Renaux, Remy Boyer, Sylvie Marcos. A Cramér-Rao bounds based analysis of 3D antenna array geometries made from ULA branches. Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing, Springer Verlag, 2013, 24 (1), pp.121-155. ⟨10.1007/s11045-011-0160-5⟩. ⟨hal-00769344⟩

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